Interpretation of Fluoride Groundwater Contamination in Tamnar Area, Raigarh, Chhattisgarh, India

Beg, Mirza Kaleem, Kumar, Navneet, Srivastava, Sushil Kumar and Carranza, Emmanuel J. M., (2023). Interpretation of Fluoride Groundwater Contamination in Tamnar Area, Raigarh, Chhattisgarh, India. Earth, 4(3), 626-654

Document type:

  • Sub-type Journal article
    Author Beg, Mirza Kaleem
    Kumar, Navneet
    Srivastava, Sushil Kumar
    Carranza, Emmanuel J. M.
    Title Interpretation of Fluoride Groundwater Contamination in Tamnar Area, Raigarh, Chhattisgarh, India
    Appearing in Earth
    Volume 4
    Issue No. 3
    Publication Date 2023-08-22
    Place of Publication Basel
    Publisher Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Start page 626
    End page 654
    Language eng
    Abstract A high concentration of fluoride (F−) in drinking water is harmful and is a serious concern worldwide due to its toxicity and accumulation in the human body. There are various sources of fluoride (F−) and divergent pathways to enter into groundwater sources. High F− incidence in groundwater was reported in Raigarh district of Central India in a sedimentary (Gondwana) aquifer system. The present study investigates the hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in the Tamnar area of Raigarh district to understand the plausible cause(s) of high F− concentration, especially the source(s) and underlying geochemical processes. Groundwater samples, representing pre-monsoon (N = 83), monsoon (N = 20), and post-monsoon (N = 81) seasons, and rock samples (N = 4) were collected and analyzed. The study revealed that (i) groundwater with high F− concentration occurs in the Barakar Formation, which has a litho-assemblage of feldspathic sandstones, shales, and coal, (ii) high F− concentration is mainly associated with Na-Ca-HCO3, Na-Ca-Mg-HCO3, and Na-Mg-Ca-HCO3 types of groundwater, (iii) the F− concentration increases as the ratio of Na+ and Ca2+ increases (Na+: Ca2+, concentration in meq/l), (iv) F− has significant positive correlation with Na+ and SiO2, and significant negative correlation with Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3−, and TH, and (v) high F− concentration in groundwater is found in deeper wells. Micas and clay minerals, occurring in the feldspathic sandstones and intercalated shale/clay/coal beds, possibly form an additional source for releasing F− in groundwater. Feldspar dissolution coupled with anion (OH− or F−) and cation (Ca2+ for Na+) exchange are probably the dominant geochemical processes taking place in the study area. The higher residence time and temperature of groundwater in deeper aquifers also play a role in enhancing the dissolution of fluorine-bearing minerals. Systematic hydrogeochemical investigations are recommended in the surrounding area having a similar geologic setting in view of the potential health risk to a large population.
    Keyword Geochemical process
    Barakar formation
    Groundwater contamination
    Copyright Holder The Authors
    Copyright Year 2023
    Copyright type Creative commons
    DOI 10.3390/earth4030033
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    Created: Thu, 09 Nov 2023, 00:54:44 JST by Aarti Basnyat on behalf of UNU EHS