Relationship between diarrhoea risk and the combinations of drinking water sources in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

Kobayashi, Yuka, Ito, Yuri, Shrestha, Sadhana, Yokomichi, Hiroshi and Nishida, Kei, (2021). Relationship between diarrhoea risk and the combinations of drinking water sources in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. International Health, 14(2), 195-200

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  • Sub-type Journal article
    Author Kobayashi, Yuka
    Ito, Yuri
    Shrestha, Sadhana
    Yokomichi, Hiroshi
    Nishida, Kei
    Title Relationship between diarrhoea risk and the combinations of drinking water sources in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
    Appearing in International Health
    Volume 14
    Issue No. 2
    Publication Date 2021-06-11
    Place of Publication Oxford
    Publisher Oxford University Press
    Start page 195
    End page 200
    Language eng
    Abstract In Nepal, the number of diarrhoea hospitalizations in all ages is seriously high. According to the World Health Organization, diarrheal diseases can be substantially prevented through safe drinking water sources. In the Kathmandu Valley, because of the shortage of piped water, local residents use alternative water sources, such as groundwater, jars and tanker water. However, these alternative water sources can be contaminated. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between diarrhoea risk and the combinations of drinking water sources. A survey using multiple questionnaires on diarrhoea occurrence, water sources and water treatment was conducted three time between 2015 and 2016. The odds ratios (ORs) of developing diarrhoea were significantly high for drinking jar (OR 6.1) and tanker water (OR 8.4) compared with not drinking. The combined drinking of jar and tanker water obtained the 1 log higher OR compared with drinking only piped water. Conversely, drinking groundwater had a low OR, implying that the residents refrained from drinking polluted groundwater. In conclusion, diarrhoea occurrence was related not only to the level of water contamination, but also to a behavioural factor, i.e. people's careful management of the choice of multiple water sources.
    UNBIS Thesaurus NEPAL
    Keyword Alternative water sources
    Jar water
    Diarrhoea risk
    Tanker water
    Copyright Holder The Authors
    Copyright Year 2021
    Copyright type Creative commons
    DOI https://doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihab032
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    Created: Fri, 23 Sep 2022, 23:36:24 JST by Hanna Takemoto on behalf of UNU IAS