Do Differences in Social Environments Explain Gender Differences in Recreational Walking across Neighbourhoods?

Ghani, Fatima, Rachele, Jerome N., Loh, Venurs H. Y., Washington, Simon and Turrell, Gavin, (2019). Do Differences in Social Environments Explain Gender Differences in Recreational Walking across Neighbourhoods?. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(11), 1-18

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  • Sub-type Journal article
    Author Ghani, Fatima
    Rachele, Jerome N.
    Loh, Venurs H. Y.
    Washington, Simon
    Turrell, Gavin
    Title Do Differences in Social Environments Explain Gender Differences in Recreational Walking across Neighbourhoods?
    Appearing in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
    Volume 16
    Issue No. 11
    Publication Date 2019-06-04
    Place of Publication Basel, Switzerland
    Publisher MDPI
    Start page 1
    End page 18
    Language eng
    Abstract Within a city, gender differences in walking for recreation (WfR) vary significantly across neighborhoods, although the reasons remain unknown. This cross-sectional study investigated the contribution of the social environment (SE) to explaining such variation, using 2009 data from the How Areas in Brisbane Influence health and activity (HABITAT) study, including 7866 residents aged 42–67 years within 200 neighborhoods in Brisbane, Australia (72.6% response rate). The analytical sample comprised 200 neighborhoods and 6643 participants (mean 33 per neighborhood, range 8–99, 95% CI 30.6–35.8). Self-reported weekly minutes of WfR were categorized into 0 and 1–840 mins. The SE was conceptualized through neighborhood-level perceptions of social cohesion, incivilities and safety from crime. Analyses included multilevel binomial logistic regression with gender as main predictor, adjusting for age, socioeconomic position, residential self-selection and neighborhood disadvantage. On average, women walked more for recreation than men prior to adjustment for excoriates. Gender differences in WfR varied significantly across neighborhoods, and the magnitude of the variation for women was twice that of men. The SE did not explain neighborhood differences in the gender–WfR relationship, nor the between-neighborhood variation in WfR for men or women. Neighborhood-level factors seem to influence the WfR of men and women differently, with women being more sensitive to their environment, although Brisbane’s SE did not seem such a factor.
    Keyword gender equality
    recreational walking
    social environment
    between-neighbourhood variation
    multilevel modelling
    random coefficients
    urban planning
    ecological interventions
    Sustainable Development Goals
    sustainable cities
    Sustainable communities
    Copyright Holder The Authors
    Copyright Year 2019
    Copyright type Creative commons
    DOI 10.3390/ijerph16111980
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    Created: Mon, 05 Aug 2019, 13:41:06 JST by Nur Madihah Mat Latip on behalf of UNU IIGH