Drivers of Ecological Restoration: Lessons from a Century of Restoration

Aradottir, Asa L., Petursdottir, Thorunn, Halldorsson, Gudmundur, Svavarsdottir, Kristin and Arnalds, Olafur, (2013). Drivers of Ecological Restoration: Lessons from a Century of Restoration. Ecology and Society, 18(4), n/a-n/a

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  • Sub-type Journal article
    Author Aradottir, Asa L.
    Petursdottir, Thorunn
    Halldorsson, Gudmundur
    Svavarsdottir, Kristin
    Arnalds, Olafur
    Title Drivers of Ecological Restoration: Lessons from a Century of Restoration
    Appearing in Ecology and Society
    Volume 18
    Issue No. 4
    Publication Date 2013
    Place of Publication Stockholm
    Publisher Resilience Alliance
    Start page n/a
    End page n/a
    Language eng
    Abstract We analyzed the main drivers for ecological restoration in Iceland from 1907 to 2010 and assessed whether the drivers have changed over time and what factors might explain the changes, if any. Our study was based on a catalogue of 100 restoration projects, programs, and areas, representing 75% to 85% of all restoration activities in Iceland. Catastrophic erosion was an early driver for soil conservation and restoration efforts that still ranked high in the 2000s, reflecting the immense scale of soil erosion and desertification in Iceland. Socioeconomic drivers such as farming and the provision of wood products were strong motivators of ecological restoration over most of the 20th century, although their relative importance decreased with time as the number and diversity of drivers increased. In the 1960s and 1970s, the construction of hard infrastructure, and moral values such as improving the aesthetics of the countryside and “repaying the debt to the land” emerged as motivations for restoration actions. In the late 1990s, the United Nations Climate Change Convention became a driver for restoration, and the importance of nature conservation and recreation increased. Technological development and financial incentives did not show up as drivers of ecological restoration in our study, although there are some indications of their influence. Furthermore, policy was a minor driver, which might reflect weak policy instruments for ecological restoration and some counteractive policies.
    Keyword Birch woodlands
    Drivers
    Ecological restoration
    Heathlands
    Land degradation
    Revegetation
    Soil erosion
    Wetlands
    Copyright Holder The Authors
    Copyright Year 2013
    Copyright type Creative commons
    DOI 10.5751/ES-05946-180433
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    Created: Mon, 08 Jan 2018, 23:53:33 JST by Malfridur Omarsdottir on behalf of UNU Iceland