Catching up in pharmaceuticals: a comparative study of India and Brazil

Guennif, Samira and Ramani, Shyama V. (2010). Catching up in pharmaceuticals: a comparative study of India and Brazil. UNU-MERIT.

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  • Author Guennif, Samira
    Ramani, Shyama V.
    Title Catching up in pharmaceuticals: a comparative study of India and Brazil
    Publication Date 2010
    Publisher UNU-MERIT
    Abstract Since the mid-twentieth century, the national objective of India and Brazil has been to develop industrial capabilities in essential sectors such as pharmaceuticals. At the outset, they shared some common features: a considerable period of lax intellectual property rights regimes, large internal market and a reasonably strong cadre of scientists and engineers. However, over fifty years, India has had much more success in building indigenous capabilities in pharmaceuticals than Brazil, at least to date. Why? In exploring the answer to this question, we show that in both countries the design of State policy played a crucial role and the endogenous responses in the national system of innovation consisted of two parts. On the one hand, most of the time, the predicted and desired outcome was partially realized and on the other hand, there were invariably, other unpredicted responses that emerged. The latter unexpected elements, which were specific to the two countries, pushed them along distinctive trajectories.
    Keyword Pharmaceutical industry
    India
    Brazil
    Industrial capabilities
    Catch-up
    JEL O330
    O380
    O570
    Copyright Holder UNU-MERIT
    Copyright Year 2010
    ISSN 1871-9872
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    Created: Wed, 11 Dec 2013, 16:47:35 JST