Impacts of the 1997-98 El Niño Event in Costa Rica

Jeffrey R. Jones, Sebastian Wesselman, Markku Kanninen, Francisco Jimenez, Rosanna Lok, Patricia Ramirez, Eladio Zarate, Manuel Jimenez and Ezequiel Garcia (2000). Impacts of the 1997-98 El Niño Event in Costa Rica. Reducing the Impact of Environmental Emergencies through Early Warning and Preparedness in the Case of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). United Nations.

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  • Sub-type Technical report
    Author Jeffrey R. Jones
    Sebastian Wesselman
    Markku Kanninen
    Francisco Jimenez
    Rosanna Lok
    Patricia Ramirez
    Eladio Zarate
    Manuel Jimenez
    Ezequiel Garcia
    Title Impacts of the 1997-98 El Niño Event in Costa Rica
    Series Title Reducing the Impact of Environmental Emergencies through Early Warning and Preparedness in the Case of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
    Publication Date 2000
    Place of Publication Costa Rica
    Publisher United Nations
    Pages XLVII, 47
    Language eng
    Abstract With the announcement of the 1997-98 El Niño at the beginning of 1997, Costa Ricans began a massive response at the national level. National media, government ministries, agriculture and fisheries began preparations based on prior experiences with El Niño phenomena since 1982. As such, Costa Rica represents an intriguing case study of early warning and response to climatic anomalies. Significantly, not all prevention strategies worked as planned, and some had unforeseen consequences. These experiences provide a revealing window on the possibilities of response to early warnings, and the limitations of such strategies. One initial conclusion of the review of the 1997-98 El Niño response is that Costa Rica in fact has adopted a “culture of preparedness,” as recommended by international disaster prevention efforts, such as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR 1998). This preparedness is especially clear in contrast to the lack of preparation on the part of other Central American countries. A more sobering observation is the delicate policy decision of climate prediction. As probabilistic statements, forecasts have a likelihood of error; the impact of mispredictions must be carefully weighed with the benefits of early preparation, and led to very different approaches on the part of the various organizations involved in the early analysis of the 1997-98 event, with different institutions favouring more and less speculative forecasts.
    UNBIS Thesaurus METEOROLOGY
    CLIMATE
    WATER RESOURCES
    NATURAL DISASTERS
    EL NINO CURRENT
    COSTA RICA
    Copyright Holder United Nations University
    Copyright Year 2000
    Copyright type All rights reserved
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    Created: Wed, 10 Nov 2021, 13:57:05 JST