Hybrid Conflict, Hybrid Peace: How Militias and Paramilitary Groups Shape Post-Conflict Transitions

Day, Adam, Vanda Felbab-Brown and Haddad, Fanar, Hybrid Conflict, Hybrid Peace: How Militias and Paramilitary Groups Shape Post-Conflict Transitions, ed. Day, Adam (New York: United Nations University, 2020).

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  • Author Day, Adam
    Vanda Felbab-Brown
    Haddad, Fanar
    Editor Day, Adam
    Title Hybrid Conflict, Hybrid Peace: How Militias and Paramilitary Groups Shape Post-Conflict Transitions
    Publication Date 2020-04-14
    Place of Publication New York
    Publisher United Nations University
    Pages 159
    Language eng
    Abstract Today’s civil wars are becoming more frequent, more harmful to civilians and harder to resolve. Why are sustainable peace outcomes proving more elusive? One contributing factor to these trends may be the increasing use of pro-government militias (PGMs) in armed conflict. Auxiliary forces have played crucial roles in helping governments win back territory, weaken rebel forces or consolidate battlefield strength. They are a quick and cheap means of mobilizing force and may offer unique local knowledge and intelligence, building greater traction among contested communities or constituencies. In some situations, States may turn to PGMs to outsource the “dirty work” of war while maintaining plausible deniability for human rights violations. However, the use of PGMs carries significant risks in terms of post-conflict peace and stability. The research finds that PGMs can be a double-edged sword: in the short-term, they may meet immediate security demands, but over time they can present significant consequences to peace and stability in four areas: undermining the State capacity and authority; the risk to civilians and the rule of law, contributing to further instability; through illicit networks and agents of criminal enterprises; and the polarizing forces in local communities and regions of PGMs. Taken together, the presence of PGMs may tend to make a conflict last longer, produce increased levels of violence and abuse and make the post-conflict period more volatile. This report builds upon original field research on three PGMs used in government-led counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism strategies: Nigeria’s Civilian Joint Task Force (CJTF), Iraq’s Popular Mobilization Units (PMU) and Somalia’s darwish forces, amongst others. It also draws from earlier commissioned fieldwork for UNU-CPR’s The Limits of Punishment project, involving the same three countries.
    UNBIS Thesaurus CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
    CHILDREN IN ARMED CONFLICTS
    ETHNIC CONFLICT
    REGIONAL CONFLICTS
    HUMAN RIGHTS IN ARMED CONFLICTS
    POST-CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION
    RECONCILIATION
    DISARMAMENT
    MILITARY DEMOBILIZATION
    PARAMILITARY FORCES
    PEACE RESEARCH
    GROUP CONFLICT PREVENTION
    Keyword Paramilitary forces
    Security forces
    Iraq
    Somalia
    Nigeria
    Iran
    Al-Shabbab
    Boko Haram
    Islamic State
    ISIS
    Peacekeeping
    United Nations
    Copyright Holder United Nations University
    Copyright Year 2020
    Copyright type Creative commons
    ISBN 9789280865134
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    Created: Fri, 24 Apr 2020, 02:40:49 JST by Dursi, Anthony on behalf of UNU Centre