Potential of an African Vetiver Grass in Managing Wastewater

Oku, Effiom, Nnamani, Catherine V., Otam, Michael O., Truong, Paul and Akrofi-Atitianti, Felix (2016). Potential of an African Vetiver Grass in Managing Wastewater. UNU-INRA Working Paper. United Nations University Institute for Natural Resources in Africa.

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    Author Oku, Effiom
    Nnamani, Catherine V.
    Otam, Michael O.
    Truong, Paul
    Akrofi-Atitianti, Felix
    Editor Nutakor, Praise
    Title Potential of an African Vetiver Grass in Managing Wastewater
    Series Title UNU-INRA Working Paper
    Volume/Issue No. 14
    Publication Date 2016-10-27
    Place of Publication Accra
    Publisher United Nations University Institute for Natural Resources in Africa
    Pages IX, 37
    Language eng
    Abstract The discharge of untreated domestic and industrial wastewater into the environment is common in Africa and other developing nations of the world. The conventional treatment systems available in developed economies are very expensive for many African countries. The quest to find a unique and greener way of treating the growing wastewater volume, both at the micro and macro scale in Africa, led to this study. The study evaluated biological and mechanical properties of an unknown African endemic species of Vetiver grass (Chysopogon nigritanus) and the South Indian species (Chysopogon zizanioides). It further analysed their effectiveness in cleaning industrial effluent and compared the potential of the African species with the South Indian species, which potential in treating wastewater is well-established by research. Untreated effluents were collected from an abattoir, a quarry site and fertilizer and cassava processing companies. Untreated leachate from a public refuse dump, wastewater from urban drains and crude oil polluted water were also collected and treated with these bio-resources (Chysopogon nigritanus and Chysopogon zizanioides). Pre and post treatment properties of effluents assessed were BOD, COD, pH, N, P. Cd, Pb, Zn, Ar, Ni, Fe, Mg, among others. All pre-treatment properties exceeded the WHO/FAO and USEPA safe levels for wastewater before discharge or re-use. Treatment using the African bio-resource for 2, 4 and 6 days reduced the pollutants significantly to acceptable safe levels. In some cases, contaminants were completely removed bringing the wastewater quality to acceptable safe levels for urban agriculture. The African species, just like the South Indian species, has a high potential in cleaning wastewater. However, while the African species was more effective in removing phosphate, the South Indian species was more effective on nitrate. Both species fit into the global call for promoting a Green Economy, more specifically, in the area of managing wastewater with bio-resources before discharge or for re-use.
    Keyword wastewater
    vetiver grass
    effluents
    bio-resource
    Copyright Holder United Nations University Institute for Natural Resources in Africa
    Copyright Year 2016
    Copyright type Fair use permitted
    ISBN 9789988633103
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    Created: Thu, 27 Oct 2016, 20:51:09 JST by Praise Nutakor on behalf of UNU INRA