Entrepreneurship and innovation in a hybrid political order: The case of Lebanon

Stel, Nora and Naudé, Wim (2012). Entrepreneurship and innovation in a hybrid political order: The case of Lebanon. UNU-MERIT.

Document type:
Report

Metadata
Documents
Versions
Statistics
  • Attached Files (Some files may be inaccessible until you login with your UNU Collections credentials)
    Name Description MIMEType Size Downloads
    wp2012-078.pdf PDF application/pdf 974.20KB
  • Author Stel, Nora
    Naudé, Wim
    Title Entrepreneurship and innovation in a hybrid political order: The case of Lebanon
    Publication Date 2012
    Publisher UNU-MERIT
    Abstract Governance is often treated as a 'black box' explanation for unproductive or destructive entrepreneurship. In order to improve our understanding of how governance structures influence entrepreneurship and innovation it is instructive to consider how entrepreneurs function in so-called hybrid political orders. Lebanon is such a hybrid political order in which a dual game of informal clientelism and formal programmatic competition shapes entrepreneurship. In this paper I provide an exploratory overview of the governance-entrepreneurship nexus in Lebanon. It is argued that although Lebanese entrepreneurial attitudes appear to be very positive, entrepreneurial activity seems to be adversely impacted by governance challenges and entrepreneurial aspiration is severely underdeveloped. In-depth interviews with Lebanese experts show that Lebanese entrepreneurs still face significant obstacles, often related to the political context and system. These include: the high costs of utilities and infrastructure; poor government support and a lack of political vision for the economy; and instability and unpredictability related to violent conflict that make investment and planning difficult and foster a short-term, migration-focused mentality. Lebanese entrepreneurs respond to these challenges by operating as independent from government as they can; taking a regional perspective; and diversifying. The challenging context, moreover, also offers particular assets and opportunities to entrepreneurs, such as a vibrant diaspora and a supposedly resilient business mentality.
    UNU Topics of Focus Governance
    Conflict
    Entrepreneurship
    Keyword Lebanon
    Governance
    Conflict
    Fragility
    Entrepreneurship
    Innovation
    Business
    JEL L26
    M48
    O17
    O53
    Copyright Holder UNU-MERIT
    Copyright Year 2012
  • Versions
    Version Filter Type
  • Citation counts
    Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
    Access Statistics: 903 Abstract Views, 439 File Downloads  -  Detailed Statistics
    Created: Wed, 11 Dec 2013, 16:14:29 JST