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United Nations UniversityenFez 2.1 RC3http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rssHow to cure the trade balance? Reducing budget deficits versus devaluations in the presence of J- and W-curves for Brazil
http://collections.unu.edu/view/UNU:1190
We analyze empirically for Brazil a hypothesis by Stiglitz (2002) saying that devaluations may be more effective in reducing trade deficits than cuts in budget deficits. We find that the Ricardian equivalence does not hold. Devaluations have a stronger impact on the trade deficit than budget deficits when doing the analysis with yearly or monthly data even when the effect from a risk variable obtained from a TARCH estimate is subtracted. Devaluations have an effect that lasts 25 months. A J-or W-curve can be obtained from a polynomial distributed lag estimate. Devaluations can explain almost 19% of consumer price inflation. However, if inflation control is a task assigned to monetary policy rather than exchange rate policy, devaluations are available as an instrument to stabilize the trade balance under shocks rather than keeping exchange rates fixed through sales of reserves. This may avoid overvaluations, speculative attacks and currency crises. The results for the trade balance hold for several updates except for the last one, where budget deficits and exchange rate changes change signs. This suggests a role for imported investments and elasticity pessimism and casts doubts on the role of cutting budget deficits and devaluations in regard to the trade balance. Stability tests suggest that structural change seems to play a role. The change in signs of our estimates may have been caused by a change of exchange rate policies leading to appreciations since June 2004 and by an extraordinarily strong industrial recession in 2003 in some countries. If Ricardian equivalence for the trade balance is imposed by assumption we find a weakly significant N-curve for exchange rate risk jointly with a J-curve for devaluations.2013-12-13T12:39:05Z
Ziesemer, Thomas
Growth with perfect capital movements in CES: US Debt Dynamics and model estimation
http://collections.unu.edu/view/UNU:1185
We derive the central differential equation of the neoclassical growth model for the case of a CES (constant elasticity of substitution) production function with perfect capital movement in terms of the debt/GDP ratio and estimate it in several ways for the United States and in a later step the whole model. Debt data are derived from the accumulation of differences between investment and we show that then valuation effects play a minor role. The result is that the US debt/GDP ratio follows the pattern of a stable differential equation, which will lead to a long-run debtor position. The debt/GDP ratio will approach a value between 50% and 60% (depending on the specification used) unless a structural break increases the world interest rates or, similarly, US spreads reduce the US demand for foreign debt. A value of 50% will be achieved around 2040. We also find short-run deviations from this long-run path, which are characterized by non-sustainable explosive debt growth. These phases are characterized by high interest rates and followed by devaluations of the dollar. Our simple method allows detecting such phases early on. The estimation of the whole model yields an elasticity of substitution for capital and labour of .155 with autocorrelation correction (and 1/3 without), a growth rate of labour-augmenting technical change of 1.65% (1.5%) and a corresponding initial level of labour productivity as of 1959 of about 350 (320).2013-12-13T12:39:19Z
Ziesemer, Thomas
Simultaneous Estimation of Income and Price Elasticities of Export Demand, Scale Economies and Total Factor Productivity Growth for Brazil
http://collections.unu.edu/view/UNU:1176
This paper focuses on a model in which low (high) export demand elasticities and the fact that developing countries are importers of capital goods help explaining the slow (high) growth of these countries. The question arises whether export demand elasticities are low or high. For answering this question, export demand elasticities for the case of Brazil are estimated using a growth model. As a by-product of estimating the model, we obtain estimates for total-factor productivity growth and for scale economies. Based on the results from estimation we calculate steady-state growth rates, engine and handmaiden effects of growth as well as dynamic steady-state gains from trade. The model and the results are discussed in regard to several strands of literature.2013-12-13T12:39:43Z
Mutz, Christine
og Ziesemer, Thomas
General Purpose Technologies and Energy Policy
http://collections.unu.edu/view/UNU:1183
We employ a general purpose technology model with endogenous stochastic growth to simulate the effects of different energy policy schemes. An R&D sector produces endogenous growth by developing radical and incremental technologies. These innovations result in blueprints for capital intermediates, which require raw capital and either carbon or non-carbon-based fuels. A carbon tax therefore affects not only the final production sector but also the R&D sector by making the development of non-carbon-based technologies more attractive. Due to path dependencies and possible lock-in situations, policy can have a significant long-term impact on the energy structure of the economy. Allowing for different elasticities of substitution between consumption and environmental quality, we examine the effects of different carbon policies on growth, environmental quality, and welfare. We find that an anti-carbon policy may reduce welfare initially, but in the long run there is a strong potential for a 'double dividend' due to faster growth and reduced pollution.2013-12-13T12:39:25Z
van Zon, Adriaan
og Kronenberg, Tobias